Patch, Patch, PATCH!
  An unpatched machine is more likely to have software vulnerabilities that can be exploited. Turn on automatic updates:

Install protective software.
Once installed, schedule software(Antivirus) to regularly scan and update your virus definitions automatically.

Choose strong passwords.
  Strong passwords use a combination of letters, numbers, and special characters. Create a unique password for each account.

Back up on a regular basis.
  Scheduling routine backups can protect you from the unexpected. Always keep a few months' worth of retrievable backup.

Control access to your machine.
  Don't leave your computer in an unsecured, public area, especially if you're logged on.

The physical security of your machine is just as important as its technical security.

       Use email and the internet safely.
Ignore unsolicited emails. Be suspicious of attachments, links, and forms in emails that come from people you don't know, or Avoid untrustworthy (often free) downloads.

       Use secure connections.
When connected to the internet, your data can be vulnerable while in transit. Use remote connectivity and secure file transfer options when off campus.

       Protect sensitive data.
Securely remove sensitive data files from your hard drive, especially when recycling or repurposing your computer. Protect sensitive files using the encryption tools built into your operating system.

       Use desktop firewalls.
Mac and Windows computers use basic desktop firewalls to protect your computer files from being scanned. Make sure they are properly configured.

       Most importantly, stay informed.
Stay current with the latest developments:


Chair and posture

       Sit with your bottom back on the chair rather than sitting on the front edge. Periodically check your posture to ensure you are not sitting with your chin poked out.

       The longer you sit the poorer your posture is likely to be - be diligent in taking your breaks.


       Sit close to the desk when working at the computer so that your arms are by your side with your elbows near your waist.

       Keep your desk clear of clutter to avoid awkward working positions.


       Poor typing skills can lead to neck and arm pain. Improve your skills with an online touch typing course if necessary.  

       Use a free floating posture for keying - do not fix wrists to the desk.

       Keep the keyboard flat for straighter wrists.

       If you are reading your screen and not keying rest your hands in your lap or by your side rather than keeping them on the keyboard.


       Your hand should be relaxed on the mouse in a neutral position. Do not grip the mouse tightly.

       Don't leave your hand on the mouse if you are not using it.

       Use keyboard short-cuts to reduce the amount of mousing you do.

       Do not fix your wrist to the desk when moving the mouse. Rest your wrist on the desk when not moving the mouse

Gel wrist supports

       These supports can be useful to assist a straight wrist position but they also have the potential to aggravate injuries if used incorrectly. Ensure the gel support is not higher than the keyboard or mouse, and do not rest wrists on these while keying and mousing.


       Check that you are working with your screen directly in front of you.

Document holder

       Place any documents you need to view while working at screen on a document holder rather than on the desktop.


       If you have frequent telephone use or need to use the computer while on the phone use a headset. Do not cradle the phone between your shoulder and your ear.


       Take a posture and movement breaks for a few minutes every 30 minutes of seated computer work.

       Your eyes need a visual break every 20 to 30 minutes where your focus is changed from your screen to a distance of at least 3m away.


       Adjust blinds as necessary to keep even light levels around your screen.

Visual health

       Have an optometry assessment every two years to prevent problems related to visual strain.

Safe storage

       Stand to access heavier folders on shelves above your desk rather than reaching and lifting at shoulder height. Keep heaviest and most frequently used items on shelves around waist height (between shoulder and mid-thigh).


Related image

Antivirus software is a class of program designed to prevent, detect and remove malware infections on individual computing devices, networks and IT systems.

Antivirus software, originally designed to detect and remove viruses from computers, can also protect against a wide variety of threats, including other types of malicious software, such as  keyloggers, browser hijackers, Trojan horses, worms, rootkits, spyware, adware, botnets and ransomware.

How antivirus software works

Antivirus software typically runs as a background process, scanning computers, servers or mobile devices to detect and restrict the spread of malware. Many antivirus software programs include real-time threat detection and protection to guard against potential vulnerabilities as they happen, as well as system scans that monitor device and system files looking for possible risks.

Antivirus software usually performs these basic functions:

  • Scanning directories or specific files for known malicious patterns indicating the presence of malicious software;
  • Allowing users to schedule scans so they run automatically;
  • Allowing users to initiate new scans at any time; and
  • Removing any malicious software it detects. Some antivirus software programs do this automatically in the background, while others notify users of infections and ask them if they want to clean the files.

In order to scan systems comprehensively, antivirus software must generally be given privileged access to the entire system. This makes antivirus software itself a common target for attackers, and researchers have discovered remote code execution and other serious vulnerabilities in antivirus software products in recent years.

Types of antivirus programs

Antivirus software is distributed in a number of forms, including stand-alone antivirus scanners and internet security suites that offer antivirus protection, along with firewalls, privacy controls and other security protections.

Some antivirus software vendors offer basic versions of their products at no charge. These free versions generally offer basic antivirus and spyware protection, but more advanced features and protections are usually available only to paying customers.

While some operating systems are targeted more frequently by virus developers, antivirus software is available for most OSes:

  • Windows antivirus software. Most antivirus software vendors offer several levels of Windows products at different price points, starting with free versions offering only basic protection. Users must start scans and updates manually and typically free versions of antivirus software won't protect against links to malicious websites or malicious attachments in emails. Premium versions of antivirus software often include suites of endpoint security tools that may provide secure online storage, ad blockers and file encryption. Since 2004, Microsoft has been offering some kind of free antivirus software as part of the Windows operating system itself, generally under the name Windows Defender, though the software was mostly limited to detecting spyware prior to 2006.
  • macOS antivirus software. Although macOS viruses exist, they're less common than Windows viruses, so antivirus products for macOS are less standardized than those for Windows. There are a number of free and paid products  available, providing  on-demand tools to protect against potential malware threats through full-system malware scans and the ability to sift through specific email threads, attachments and various web activities.
  • Android antivirus software. Android is the world's most popular mobile operating system and is installed on more mobile devices than any other OS. Because most mobile malware targets Android, experts recommend all Android device users install antivirus software on their devices. Vendors offer a variety of basic free and paid premium versions of their Android antivirus software including anti-theft and remote-locating features. Some run automatic scans and actively try to stop malicious web pages and files from being opened or downloaded.

Virus detection techniques

Antivirus software uses a variety of virus detection techniques.

Originally, antivirus software depended on signature-based detection to flag malicious software. Antivirus programs depend on stored virus signatures -- unique strings of data that are characteristic of known malware. The antivirus software uses these signatures to identify when it encounters viruses that have already been identified and analyzed by security experts.

Signature-based malware cannot detect new malware, including variants of existing malware. Signature-based detection can only detect new viruses when the definition file is updated with information about the new virus. With the number of new malware signatures increasing at around 10 million per year as long ago as 2011, modern signature databases may contain hundreds of millions, or even billions, of entries, making antivirus software based solely on signatures impractical. However, signature-based detection does not usually produce false positive matches.

Heuristic-based detection uses an algorithm to compare the signatures of known viruses against potential threats. With heuristic-based detection, antivirus software can detect viruses that haven't been discovered yet, as well as already existing viruses that have been disguised or modified and released as new viruses. However, this method can also generate false-positive matches when antivirus software detects a program behaving similarly to a malicious program and incorrectly identifies it as a virus.

Antivirus software may also use behavior-based detection to analyze an object's behavior or potential behavior for suspicious activities and infers malicious intent based on those observations. For example, code that attempts to perform unauthorized or abnormal actions would indicate the object is malicious, or at least suspicious. Some examples of behaviors that potentially signal danger include modifying or deleting large numbers of files, monitoring keystrokes, changing settings of other programs and remotely connecting to computers.


Cloud computing is the on-demand delivery of compute power, database storage, applications, and other IT resources through a cloud services platform via the internet with pay-as-you-go pricing.



Cloud Computing Basics

Whether you are running applications that share photos to millions of mobile users or you’re supporting the critical operations of your business, a cloud services platform provides rapid access to flexible and low cost IT resources. With cloud computing, you don’t need to make large upfront investments in hardware and spend a lot of time on the heavy lifting of managing that hardware. Instead, you can provision exactly the right type and size of computing resources you need to power your newest bright idea or operate your IT department. You can access as many resources as you need, almost instantly, and only pay for what you use.

How Does Cloud Computing Work?

Cloud computing provides a simple way to access servers, storage, databases and a broad set of application services over the Internet. A Cloud services platform such as Amazon Web Services owns and maintains the network-connected hardware required for these application services, while you provision and use what you need via a web application.

 Six Advantages and Benefits of Cloud Computing

Cloud Benefits - Trade capital for variable expense icon

Trade capital expense for variable expense

Instead of having to invest heavily in data centers and servers before you know how you’re going to use them, you can only pay when you consume computing resources, and only pay for how much you consume.

Benefits of the cloud - Benefit from massive economies of scale icon

Benefit from massive economies of scale

By using cloud computing, you can achieve a lower variable cost than you can get on your own. Because usage from hundreds of thousands of customers are aggregated in the cloud, providers such as Amazon Web Services can achieve higher economies of scale which translates into lower pay as you go prices.

Cloud computing benefits - Stop guessing capacity icon

Stop guessing capacity

Eliminate guessing on your infrastructure capacity needs. When you make a capacity decision prior to deploying an application, you often either end up sitting on expensive idle resources or dealing with limited capacity. With cloud computing, these problems go away. You can access as much or as little as you need, and scale up and down as required with only a few minutes notice.

Benefits of cloud computing - Increase speed and agility icon

Increase speed and agility

In a cloud computing environment, new IT resources are only ever a click away, which means you reduce the time it takes to make those resources available to your developers from weeks to just minutes. This results in a dramatic increase in agility for the organization, since the cost and time it takes to experiment and develop is significantly lower.

Cloud benefits - Stop spending money on running and maintaining data centers icon

Stop spending money on running and maintaining data centers

Focus on projects that differentiate your business, not the infrastructure. Cloud computing lets you focus on your own customers, rather than on the heavy lifting of racking, stacking and powering servers.

Benefits of the cloud - Go global in minutes icon

Go global in minutes

Easily deploy your application in multiple regions around the world with just a few clicks. This means you can provide a lower latency and better experience for your customers simply and at minimal cost.

Cloud computing has three main types that are commonly referred to as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). Selecting the right type of cloud computing for your needs can help you strike the right balance of control and the avoidance of undifferentiated heavy lifting. Learn more about the different types of cloud computing.

Types of Cloud Computing

Cloud Solutions

Hundreds of thousands of customers have joined the Amazon Web Services (AWS) community and use AWS solutions to build their businesses. The AWS cloud computing platform provides the flexibility to build your application, your way, regardless of your use case or industry. You can save time, money, and let AWS manage your infrastructure, without compromising scalability, security, or dependability.  Learn more about AWS Cloud Solutions.

Cloud Products & Services

Amazon Web Services (AWS) offers a broad set of global compute, storage, database, analytics, application, and deployment services that help organizations move faster, lower IT costs, and scale applications. Learn more about AWS Products available in the Cloud.

Amazon Web Services tools


 Image result for computer virus

A computer virus is a malicious program that self-replicates by copying itself to another program. In other words, the computer virus spreads by itself into other executable code or documents. The purpose of creating a computer virus is to infect vulnerable systems, gain admin control and steal user sensitive data. Hackers design computer viruses with malicious intent and prey on online users by tricking them.

One of the ideal methods by which viruses spread is through emails – opening the attachment in the email, visiting an infected website, clicking on an executable file, or viewing an infected advertisement can cause the virus to spread to your system. Besides that, infections also spread while connecting with already infected removable storage devices, such as USB drives.

 It is quite easy and simple for the viruses to sneak into a computer by dodging the defense systems. A successful breach can cause serious issues for the user such as infecting other resources or system software, modifying or deleting key functions or applications and copy/delete or encrypt data.

 There are two types of ways in viruses operate, as soon as they land on a new device they begin replicating, while the second type plays dead until a particular trigger makes the malicious code to be executed. Thereby, it is highly important to stay protected by installing a robust antivirus program.

Presently, the sophisticated ones come with evasion capabilities that help in bypassing antivirus software and other advanced levels of defenses. Subsequently, the polymorphic malware development in the recent times enables the viruses to dynamically change its code as it spreads. This has made the virus detection and identification very challenging.

The History of Computer Virus

Robert Thomas, an engineer at BBN Technologies developed the first known computer virus in the year 1971. The first virus was christened as the “Creeper” virus, and the experimental program carried out by Thomas infected mainframes on ARPANET. The teletype message displayed on the screens read, “I’m the creeper: Catch me if you can.”

 But the original wild computer virus, probably the first one to be tracked down in the history of computer viruses was “Elk Cloner.” The Elk Cloner infected Apple II operating systems through floppy disks. The message displayed on infected Apple Computers was a humorous one. The virus was developed by Richard Skrenta, a teenager in the year 1982. Even though the computer viruses were designed as a prank, it also enlightened how a malicious program could be installed in a computer’s memory and stop users from removing the program.

 It was Fred Cohen, who coined the term “computer virus” and it was after a year in 1983. The term came into being when he attempted to write an academic paper titled “Computer Viruses – Theory and Experiments” detailing about the malicious programs in his work.

 Types of Computer Viruses

 A computer virus is one type of malware that inserts its virus code to multiply itself by altering the programs and applications. The computer gets infected through the replication of malicious code.

 Computer viruses come in different forms to infect the system in different ways. Some of the most common viruses are

 Boot Sector Virus – This type of virus infects the master boot record and it is challenging and a complex task to remove this virus and often requires the system to be formatted. Mostly it spreads through removable media.

 Direct Action Virus – This is also called non-resident virus, it gets installed or stays hidden in the computer memory. It stays attached to the specific type of files that it infect. It does not affect the user experience and system’s performance.

 Resident Virus – Unlike direct action viruses, resident viruses get installed on the computer. It is difficult to identify the virus and it is even difficult to remove a resident virus.

 Multipartite Virus – This type of virus spreads through multiple ways. It infects both the boot sector and executable files at the same time.

 Polymorphic Virus – These type of viruses are difficult to identify with a traditional anti-virus program. This is because the polymorphic viruses alters its signature pattern whenever it replicates.

 Overwrite Virus – This type of virus deletes all the files that it infects. The only possible mechanism to remove is to delete the infected files and the end-user has to lose all the contents in it. Identifying the overwrite virus is difficult as it spreads through emails.

 Spacefiller Virus – This is also called “Cavity Viruses”. This is called so as they fill up the empty spaces between the code and hence does not cause any damage to the file.

 #File infectors:
Few file infector viruses come attached with program files, such as .com or .exe files. Some file infector viruses infect any program for which execution is requested, including .sys, .ovl, .prg, and .mnu files. Consequently, when the particular program is loaded, the virus is also loaded.

 Besides these, the other file infector viruses come as a completely included program or script sent in email attachments.

#Macro viruses:
As the name suggests, the macro viruses particularly target macro language commands in applications like Microsoft Word. The same is implied on other programs too.

 In MS Word, the macros are keystrokes that are embedded in the documents or saved sequences for commands. The macro viruses are designed to add their malicious code to the genuine macro sequences in a Word file. However, as the years went by, Microsoft Word witnessed disabling of macros by default in more recent versions. Thus, the cybercriminals started to use social engineering schemes to target users. In the process, they trick the user and enable macros to launch the virus.

Since macro viruses are making a come back in the recent years, Microsoft quickly retaliated by adding a new feature in Office 2016. The feature enables security managers to selectively enable macro use. As a matter of fact, it can be enabled for trusted workflows and blocked if required across the organization.

 #Overwrite Viruses:

 The virus design purpose tends to vary and Overwrite Viruses are predominantly designed to destroy a file or application’s data. As the name says it all, the virus after attacking the computer starts overwriting files with its own code. Not to be taken lightly, these viruses are more capable of targeting specific files or applications or systematically overwrite all files on an infected device.

 On the flipside, the overwrite virus is capable of installing a new code in the files or applications which programs them to spread the virus to additional files, applications, and systems.

 #Polymorphic Viruses:
More and more cybercriminals are depending on the polymorphic virus. It is a malware type which has the ability to change or mutate its underlying code without changing its basic functions or features. This helps the virus on a computer or network to evade detection from many antimalware and threat detection products.

 Since virus removal programs depend on identifying signatures of malware, these viruses are carefully designed to escape detection and identification. When a security software detects a polymorphic virus, the virus modifies itself thereby, it is no longer detectable using the previous signature.

 #Resident Viruses:
The Resident virus implants itself in the memory of a computer. Basically, the original virus program is not required to infect new files or applications. Even when the original virus is deleted, the version stored in memory can be activated. This happens when the computer OS loads certain applications or functions. The resident viruses are troublesome due to the reason they can run unnoticed by antivirus and antimalware software by hiding in the system’s RAM.

 #Rootkit Viruses:
The rootkit virus is a malware type which secretly installs an illegal rootkit on an infected system. This opens the door for attackers and gives them full control of the system. The attacker will be able to fundamentally modify or disable functions and programs. Like other sophisticated viruses, the rootkit virus is also created to bypass antivirus software. The latest versions of major antivirus and antimalware programs include rootkit scanning.

 #System or Boot-record Infectors:

 The Boot-record Infectors infect executable code found in specific system areas on a disk. As the name implies, they attach to the USB thumb drives and DOS boot sector on diskettes or the Master Boot Record on hard disks. Boot viruses are no more common these days as the latest devices rely less on physical storage media.

 How To Avoid Email Viruses And Worms
Here are some simple rules you can follow to avoid being infected by viruses through email.

 How To Be Safe From Email Viruses And Worms
Here are some simple rules you can follow to avoid being infected by viruses through email.

1. Use a professional, email service such as Runbox. Subscription services provide higher levels of security and support.
2. Make sure that your Runbox virus filter is activated.
3. Use the Webmail interface at to read your email, or don’t download all your email to an email client unseen. Screen your email first, and delete suspicious-looking and unwanted messages before downloading the legitimate email to your local email client.
4. Make sure your computer has updated anti-virus software running locally. Automatic updates are essential for effective virus protection. Combined with server-side scanning, you now have two layers of security.
5. Disable message preview in your email client, especially on Windows platforms. Otherwise, malicious programs attached to incoming messages may execute automatically and infect your computer.
6. Ignore or delete messages with attachments appearing to be sent from official Runbox email addresses. Runbox rarely sends email to our users, aside from replies to inquiries and payment reminders. We practically never send an email with attachments to users.
7. Take caution when opening graphics and media attachments, as viruses can be disguised as such files.
8. Maintain several independent email accounts. If a virus infects your only business email address, you’ll be in trouble. Also, keep backups of your most important email and files separately.
9. If any valid message headers of a virus-email indicate what server the message was sent from, contact the service in question and file a formal complaint.

1. Do not open an email attachment unless you were expecting it and know whom it’s from.
2. Do not open any unsolicited executable files, documents, spreadsheets, etc.
3. Avoid downloading executable or documents from the internet, as these are often used to spread viruses.
4. Never open files with a double file extension, e.g. filename.txt.vbs. This is a typical sign of a virus program.
5. Do not send or forward any files that you haven’t virus-checked first.
6. Viruses and spam
7. Virus-makers and spammers often cooperate in devious schemes to send as much spam as possible as efficiently as possible. They create viruses that infect vulnerable computers around the world and turn them into spam-generating “robots”. The infected computers then send massive amounts of spam, unbeknownst to the computer owner.

 Such virus-generated email is often forged to appear to be sent from legitimate addresses collected from address books on infected computers. The viruses also use such data, combined with lists of common (user) names, to send spam to huge numbers of recipients. Many of those messages will be returned as undeliverable, and arrive in innocent and unknowing email users’ Inboxes. If this happens to you, use the trainable spam filter to catch those messages.

 How To Get Rid Of Computer Virus

 Never the neglect to take action on a computer virus residing in your system. There are chances that you might end up losing important files, programs, and folders. In some cases, the virus damages the system hardware too. Thereby, it becomes mandatory to have an effective anti-virus software installed on your computer to steer clear of all such threats.

 Signs of Virus Infection

 It is vital for any computer user to be aware of these warning signs –

 • Slower system performance
• Pop-ups bombarding the screen
• Programs running on their own
• Files multiplying/duplicating on their own
• New files or programs in the computer
• Files, folders or programs getting deleted or corrupted
• The sound of a hard drive

 If you come across any of these above-mentioned signs then there are chances that your computer is infected by a virus or malware. Not to delay, immediately stop all the commands and download an antivirus software. If you are unsure what to do, get the assistance of an authorized computer personnel. If you are confident enough, start investigating on your own by following the below mentioned step-by-step procedures.

 #Safe Mode
Boot the system and press F8 for Advanced Boot Options menu. Select Safe Mode with Networking and press Enter. You might need to keep repeatedly pressing to get on to the screen.

 Working on the Safe Mode helps handle nefarious files as they’re not actually running or active. Last but not the least the internet spreads the infection, so remove the connection.

 #Delete Temporary Files
In order to free the disk space, delete temporary files before starting to run the virus scan. This approach helps speed up the virus scanning process. The Disk Cleanup tool helps in deleting your temporary files on the computer.

 Here is how you got to go about accomplishing it – Start menu then select All Programs, now you click on Accessories, System Tools, and then click Disk Cleanup.

 #Download Virus/Malware Scanner
If you are under the impression that a virus scanner cleanups the bad stuff from your computer then sadly, that’s not true! It helps in eliminating standard infections and not sufficient to remove the latest harmful infections. The virus/malware scanner helps to narrow down on the issue, so, download it now. In order to better protect go for a real-time anti-virus program, since it automatically keeps checking in the background for viruses.

 P.S: Don’t install more than one real-time anti-virus program. If you do so, your system will start to behave weirdly.

 #Run a Virus/Malware Scan
Download the virus/malware scanner using the internet. Once you have finished downloading the virus scanner, disconnect it for security and safety reasons. After successful download complete the installation procedures of the Virus/Malware scanner, then start running your on-demand scanner first and thereafter run your real-time scanner.

 The reason for running both is that one of them will effectively eliminate your computer virus or malware.

 #Reinstall the Software or Damaged Files
Once the virus removal from your computer is complete, go ahead and reinstall the files and programs that were damaged by the virus or malware. Make use of the backups for re-installation.

 In simple, do the backups regularly and stay protected.